In St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou, we provide kidney cancer patients with 18 advanced anticancer technologies and high quality services, and we will try our best to help them improve their living quality, relieve their pain and prolong their survival time. The MDT (Multidisciplinary Team) of St. Stamford Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou will make therapeutic plan for kidney cancer patients based on their condition. With minimally invasive therapies, kidney cancer patients can avoid the suffering of traditional operation, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Meanwhile, experts will monitor the whole treatment, and adjust timely to improve the efficacy.
We can offer help if you are diagnosed with kidney cancer. Online appointment or telephone appointment: 010 2066616. Contact us now.
Kidney cancer is a kind of malignancy starts in epithelium of uriniferous tubule and can happen in any parts of renal parenchyma. Normally it grows slow, except for some special cases. The primary tumor in kidney can develop step by step to encroach on the tissues and organs around or metastases to other distant organs through lymphatic vessels or veins.
The incidence of kidney cancer
Kidney cancer is a most common malignancy in urinary system, whose incidence rate accounts for 3%-6% of all malignant tumors. With a ratio about 2：1 between male and female patients, it may occur in various ages and mostly happens in the age range of 50-70.
Survival rate of kidney cancer
There are many factors affecting the survival rate of kidney cancer. Generally, the survival rate for the patients who have removed kidney within 5 years is 35%～40%, while within 10 years is 17%～30%. Since the prognosis of kidney cancer is hard to estimate so that metastases may occur 20 - 30 years or even longer after nephrectomy.
What cause kidney cancer?
Although the incidence of kidney cancer is high, the exact causes are still unknown. It may be a combined result of many risk factors.
Smokers. The risk is high for those people who have been smoking without filter for more than 30 years to develop kidney cancer.
Obesity and high blood pressure. These are the two risk factors leading to male kidney cancer.
Occupation. The incidence and death rate of kidney cancer would increase in those people involved in printing, coke, dry-clean and petrochemical processing.
Radiation. The people who have been exposed in some weak radiation for long term would increase the risk of suffering from kidney cancer.
Heredity. The ones whose family members have suffered from kidney cancer get a higher incidence.
Food. According to researches, over intake of high milk products, animal proteins and fat, less intake of vegetables and fruits are the risky factors of kidney cancer.
Absence of obvious symptoms. Currently above 40% cases are clinically found in physical checkup or other occasional examinations and do not present any obvious symptoms or physical signs. The prognosis normally is good if a kidney cancer patient from early stage takes treatments early. That is why most specialists suggest regular physical checkup.
Typical local symptoms. Hematuria, lumbar pain and abdominal tumor are thought to be the three main symptoms of kidney cancer. When these occur in a patient normally it is indicating the cancer is in late stage, though this condition happens rarely. Actually only one or two of these three symptoms would develop in most patients.
Bloody urine. Visible or microscopic bloody urine may present in about 40% patients. When the severe bloody urine or blood clots forms, a patient develops renal colic, urodynia, difficulty of urination or even urine retention.
Tumor. Kidney is deep in retroperitoneum, where it cannot be reached through abdominal touch. Only when a tumor is big enough or is in the inferior pole of kidney can be touched. Abdominal lumps can be touched in around 10~40% patients. Sometimes it can be the only symptom of kidney cancer.
Lumbar pain. When a tumor is big enough to increase the tension of renal capsule or when tumor encroaches on tissues around would cause constant dull pain in lumber, then the incidence is around 20%～40%. When related symptoms occur should a patient come to doctor for consultation and treatments without delay.
Systematic symptoms. 10%~40% patients would develop paraneoplastic syndrome, which would present as high blood pressure, anemia, weight loss, cachexia, fever, erythrocytosis, and abnormality of liver functions and so on.
Metastatic symptoms. About 10% patients come to hospital for the occurrence of metastatic symptoms like bone pain, fracture, cough, hemoptysis and other symptoms.
As the symptoms of kidney cancer vary greatly that once above symptoms occur, a patient should consult professional doctors and has related examinations in time.
What are the detections for kidney cancer?
Clinical diagnosis of kidney cancer is mainly depending on imaging examinations, and final diagnosis should be based on biopsy at least.
X-ray. Irregular enlargement of lesions in kidney and blurring image of psoas major muscle can present on plain scan of lumbar. The films of pyelography normally show the images of suppressed renal pelvis or renal calices, disfiguration or torsion.
Ultrasound scan can specifically distinguish the solid tumor and kidney cysts; additionally, it can show the range of the caner, any encroachment on the organs around, or metastases in liver and spleen if any, etc.
CT scan mostly is used to diagnose occupying lesions in kidneys and identify kidney cyst and solid tumor, whose accuracy can reach up to 95%. Apart from this, it can objectively and precisely comment on tumor size, appearance, density, bleeding, post operative tumor necrosis and liquefaction, infiltration or metastases in peripheral tissues.
NMR zeugmatographic imaging (MRI) which can clearly reveal the solid tumor of kidney and distinguish tumor from identify kidney cysts.
Kidney puncture biopsy can get the pathological diagnosis early.
Treatments of kidney cancer
Treatments would be different as kidney cancer patients in different stages. And a doctor would plan out the treatment according to the physical condition of a patient. Clinically, the treatments now apply to kidney cancer are various, for instance, surgery, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination of those treatments.
Surgery. There are many methods of surgery for kidney cancer, such as radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and so on. If a patient condition allows, radical nephrectomy is a ideal methods.
Ar-He cryotherapy (also known as cryotherapy). Cryotherapy is a treatment develops fastest and matures in past few years. It performs under the guide of CT to inject argon and helium alternatively to freeze and heat the tumor, so as to kill the cancer cells.
Radiofrequncy ablation. It is a good choice in treating kidney cancer. Under the guide of imaging devices, it kills cancer cells rapidly by performing radiofrequency inside tumor through percutaneous puncture. Because it operates only through a small trauma and a patient recovers fast after operation that it can relieve the symptoms and improve the living quality of a patient.
Radiothearpy and chemotherapy. The therapeutic effect of general radiotherapy and chemotherapy was unconfirmed in the past. Currently Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou starts “minimally invasive and target therapy”, by which can locally perform radiotherapy and chemotherapy within tumor.