Duodenal cancer can be a primary cancer in duodenum or metastasis of other malignant tumors developing in stomach, bile duct or pancreas and so on.
What is the incidence of duodenal cancer?
As a rare cancer, duodenal cancer has an incidence of less than 1% in all malignant tumors. It tends to occur to the age range of 50-70 and the male patients are roughly more than the females.
What cause duodenal cancer?
Currently the cause of duodenal cancer is still unclear. But some materials in bile and pancreatic juice like lithocholic acid and other secondary bile acid may be the carcinogenic agent. Familial polyposis, benign epithelial tumor, villous adenoma or other diseases are possibly causing duodenal cancer. Apart from that, there are studies indicating duodenal ulcer or diverticular cancerization and heredity has something to do with duodenal cancer.
The types of duodenal cancer
Duodenal adenocarcinoma is originating from duodenal mucosa and most cases of this type are solitary, but some cases develop from adenoma cancerization.
Duodenal carcinoid is malignant tumor starting from the enterochromaffin cell of intestine and mostly occurs as small tumor. It can present as a single tumor or multiple tumors in intestinal tract. As the tumor increases, the infiltrating symptoms develop.
Duodenal leiomyosarcoma is a tumor of muscular layer arising from muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria of duodenum or the vessel wall in intestinal wall.
Malignant lymphoma of duodenum is cancer originating from the lymphatic tissues of duodenal wall, which is different from the secondary lesions caused by the encroachment of general malignant lymphoma on intestine.
Symptoms of duodenal cancer
Upset or dull pain in upper abdomen which symptom that do not relieve even after food intake or the pain now and then extends to the back.
Patient may develop signs like anorexia, nausea or vomit.
Mild chronic bleeding or intermittent bleeding occurs in enteron for long and the patient defecates with occult blood in stools or black stools.
Patient also may weight gradually and develop the symptoms like fever and anemia.
Lump is palpable in right upper abdomen in some patients when a tumor grows or encroaches on the tissues around.
Examinations of duodenal cancer
Pneumobarium double contrast examination. Mucosa thickening and disorder or mucosa folds disappearance and stiffness degree of duodenal wall can be observed through this examination. Besides that, the polypoid filling defect, niche sign and stenosis of duodenal lumen is visible in this examination too.
Fibroendoscopy of duodenum. Under fiberendoscope, a doctor can observe ulceration condition of the mucosa, where the lesion located and the necrotic tissues attached on mucosa.
Ultrasound B, ultrasonic endoscope and CT examination, these examinations can detect the thickening of local intestinal wall, reveal the infiltration of tumor and if any metastases occur in peripheral regions and organs, as well as the condition of liver and other internal organs.
Selective celiac and superior mesenteric arteriography. A patient can choose this method if above examinations cannot help diagnosis.
What are the traditional treatments of duodenal cancer?
Surgery, which includes pancreatoduodenectomy, segmental duodenal tube excision, local excision of papillary tumor and subtotal gastrectomy. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Even though these two therapies take poor effect on duodenal cancer, they can prolong the survival time of patient. What is more, radiotherapy and chemotherapy matching with surgery can effectively improve the resection rate and reduce the recurrence of duodenal cancer.
Daily nursing methods of duodenal cancer
A patient should keep away from smoking, alcohol, strong tea and coffee.
Binge overeating is forbidden and avoid spicy and coarse food.
Reduce the usage of drugs irritating stomach and intestines.
A patient should have more fresh vegetables and fruits.
Have reasonable and nutritious diets.
Pay attention to hygiene of the tableware for patient.
A multidisciplinary team composed of surgeons, pathologists, radiation cancer experts, minimally invasive oncologists, nurses for cancer nursing and interpreters carries out expert consultation according to symptoms and conditions of patients with duodenal cancer and then gives treatment plans that are most applicable to the patient, in order to greatly improve the therapeutic effect of duodenal cancer patient.
Traditional Chinese medicine can regulate the balance of body and strengthen the resistance to tumor. Modern Cancer Hospital Guangzhou combines Chinese medicine and other cancer treatments together, while at the same time integrates the advantages of both Chinese medicine and western medicine, which can effectively improve the effect of cancer treatments.