Clinically, duodenal cancer usually has no obvious signs and symptoms, especially in early stage, there can be no syptoms. Sometimes, patients may develop sings like abdominal pain, or dull pain in upper abdomen, ect. As the disease progresses further, there might be severer abdominal pain, vomit, bleeding, weight loss, or jaundice, hemafecia…Then, how to diagnose duodenal cancer?
Tests for Duodenal Cancer
Duodenal cancer should be diagnosed according to its clinical mainfestions and determined by auxiliary examination results. The main diagnostic tests for duodenal cancer include:
1. Hypotonic Duodenography: It can be used to observe the stiffness degree of the intestinal wall, the loss of peristalsis and the damge of mucosa folds. Besides, irregular stenosis of duodenal cavity, cauliflower-like damages and niches of irregular shapes can also be observed through this examination. Its diagnostic rate may be up to 93%.
2. Fiberoptic Endoscope or Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: This is very important method for diagnosing duodenal cancer and it is qualitatively. Through this test doctors can observe the location, shape and range of the lesions directly and take diseased tissues for further examination. It is of great value for duodenal cancer early detection, however, it cannot be used to check the distal duodenum.
3. CT Scan: The diagnostic rate of duodenal cancer by using CT scan is relatively low, but this test allows to find out the relation between the tumors and nearby organs as well as metastases to abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lungs and liver.
In CT scan, early duodenal papillary cancer often manifests as enlarged duodenal papillas in which the lumps show as apparent roun & solid lesions by transaction and are much higher than the wall of intestine. Such symptoms are especially obvious in both enhanced arterial stage and parenchymal stage.
When doing the CT scan, attention should be paid to see whether there are other lesions, or if there is gastrointestinal peristalsis or gas which affects the diagnosis in the intestine. CT scan is very important for determing if there is tumor invasion or metastases.
4. Type-B Ultrasonography: The diagnostic rate of duodenal cancer by using Type-B ultrasonography is low, but through this test doctors can find out indirect sings of dilated biliary and pancreatic duct easily, which is benificial for further examination and treatment.